The War of Independence (1775 – 1782)

American Wars by Hugh Brogan (history of the U S A )

Image associéeBunker Hill (June 17th, 1775) was the first real battle of a war which was going to drag(trainer) on for six long years.
July 4th,1776 :Declaration of Independence. The text was drawn up by Jefferson, with the collaboration of George Washington and Benjamin Franklin.
1777 : Lafayette sailed from France to help America. This was due partly to the diplomacy of Benjamin Franklin who had been to France to obtain support. Franklin is also famous for developing the lightning rod (paratonnerre)
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The French, looking for revenge on England, had been covertly sending munitions to the rebels almost since the rebellion started. The longer it lasted, the likelier their full-scale intervention became. Dr Franklin, the most urbane of Americans, arrived in Paris on 20 December 1776 to use his charm and scientific prestige to lure (séduire) Louis XVI and his ministers into the war.
He had a staggering (stupéfiant) personnal success. The ladies of paris were enchanted by him, the scientists wezlcomed him as a brother, he was ceremonially embraced by Voltaire at the Academie des Sciences and impressed averyone as another, nicer Rousseau because of his (somewhat studied) simplicity of manner and dress. Fur hats à la Franklin became the fashion. He was hailed as « le bon Quaker »(of course he was nothing of the kind), as a child of nature, father of his country, worthy representative of the virtuous foresters who were struggling for liberty against corrupt England. More important, he had the goodwill of Vergennes, the Foreign Minister and leader of the war-party, who encouraged the Doctor in his activities as propagandist, diplomatist and spy. Some at Versailles, notably the great Turgot, recently fallen from his post as Controller-General of the Finances, foresaw (prévoir) the danger to France, not yet recovered from the Seven Years War, of another struggle ; but Franklin worked up the general French enthusiasm for his cause, and at Court the war-party was dominant, only waiting for an excuse to fight. Such an excuse the British quickly provided.
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What should you visit in London ?

London is a wonderful place to visit but to make the most of your vacation time in the city it pays to prepare, plan and research in advance. There are a number of things to consider: when to visit, where to stay, what to see, what to do and where to eat.

Decide What Time of Year to Visit London

London weather can be quite unpredictable.

 Londoners are known to regularly carry sunglasses and umbrellas throughout the year. But London weather is never so extreme as to detract from all the great things to do in the city, and the major attractions are not seasonal.

The city sees a large increase in visitors in July and August (the hottest time of the year, usually). The shoulder seasons (outside the main school holidays in spring/fall) can be a great time to visit if you’re looking to avoid the crowds. There are school holidays in February, Easter, August, October and at Christmas.

Buckingham : la relève de la garde

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A première vue, à travers les grilles, il n’a pas l’air de se passer grand-chose au Palais. Seuls quelques gardes effectuent les rondes. Mais Buckingham Palace a la particularité d’offrir seulement sa façade arrière aux regards des passants. C’est de l’autre côté, celui du jardin, que l’endroit commence à présenter un intérêt.
C’est là en effet, qu’on peut assister à la rituelle chorégraphie de la relève de la Garde. Cinq régiments se relaient pour faire semblant de surveiller les abords du palais.
Ceci dit pour décourager les terroristes en puissance : la relève de la Garde, c’est pour les touristes. Et c’est très drôle à regarder, même s’il y a beaucoup de monde.

Westminster Abbey

A UNESCO World Heritage site, with a legacy dating back more than 1,000 years, Westminster Abbey is among London’s most historic landmarks. The Gothic church is best known for hosting headline-grabbing events involving the British royal family, such as the Queen’s coronation, Princess Diana’s funeral, and Prince William and Kate Middleton’s wedding.

En quittant St Jame’s Park chassé par la pluie, vous apercevrez sur votre droite la plus célèbre des églises d’Angleterre. Entrez -y pour vous abriter des gouttes, et vous serez submergé par la majesté de l’endroit. Et pour cause : c’est ici que sont couronnés tous les monarques anglais.

Le Parlement

Cet immense bâtiment de pierre rose est le chaudron dans lequel est cuisinée la démocratie britannique. Celle-ci contrairement au gigot à la menthe, s’exporte très bien : la « Constitution » anglaise est un modèle de stabilité, qui fourmille de rituels amusants. Par exemple les députés de la majorité et de l’opposition se font face à la Chambre des Communes, mais sans jamais s’adresser la parole : lorsqu’ils parlent, ils se tournent vers le speaker qui dirige les débats. Le Lord Chancelier, « président » de la Chambre des Lords, doit quant à lui porter une perruque.

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En bateau sur la Tamise
London’s river Thames is famous for landmarks such as Tower Bridge, the London Eye and Shakespeare’s Globe but there are plenty of exciting, interesting, and often delicious treats you might not have heard of along the river as well.
Toutes les demi-heures, des bateaux quittent les pontons du centre de Londres pour se rendre à l’Ouest ou à l’Est de la ville. Offrez vous une petite croisière jusqu’à Greenwich. Ce faubourg se présente comme un adorable petit village et un excellent cadre pour une promenade. On peut y visiter le Cutty Sark, le bateau qui ramenait la laine d’Australie et le thé de Chine au siècle dernier. On peut surtout y passer de longues heures à marcher sur le méridien zéro (connu sous le nom de méridien de Greenwich) et se demander comment les Anglais ont réussi à faire croire à la terre entière que le centre du monde était chez eux.
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le British Museum
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Celebrated for such treasures as the Rosetta Stone, Egyptian mummies and the Parthenon sculptures, its collections cover archaeology, world cultures, science, decorative and applied arts, and prints and drawings. The world’s major civilisations are explored in the museum’s lively programme of blockbuster exhibitions.

The British Museum won the 2011 Art Fund Prize for its groundbreaking project A History of the World, which included the highly successful 100-part series of the same name on BBC Radio 4.

Founded in 1753, the museum has gradually expanded. In 2000 it unveiled the Great Court, a glass-covered internal courtyard, in the area formerly occupied by the British Library. In spring 2014 the largest development in the museum’s history was unveiled. The World Conservation and Exhibitions Centre houses new conservation and science laboratories and the stunning new Sainsbury Exhibitions Gallery, a purpose-designed space that will allow the museum to stage ever more ambitious exhibitions.

Le British Museum est le plus grand musée de Londres. Inutile donc de chercher à tout voir en une seule fois. Contentez vous des antiquités égyptiennes , la plus riche et le plus attrayante des sections du musée. Elle se trouve dans le prolongement de la librairie, à gauche en entrant. Vous y verrez la fameuse pierre de Rosette, qui permit à Champollion de déchiffrer les hiéroglyphes, ainsi qu’une collection de momies et de sarcophages qui vous donneront envie de rejouer le « Mystère de la Grande Pyramide ».

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Hyde Park in London

What to do and where to stay in London’s Hyde Park neighbourhood

Hyde Park is among the best city centre parks in the world, all the more awe-inspiring because it creates a virtually unbroken line of green space with Kensington Gardens, Green Park and St James’s Park across the capital. Being slap-bang in the middle of town, it’s surrounded by a vibrant collection of areas from plush Kensington on its south-western tip to the end of Oxford Street in the northeastern corner; with many luxury hotels dotted around the perimeter. Technically two different parks, Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens are in practical and historical terms one huge, merging expanse. Almost every kind of outdoor pursuit takes place within its 625 acres all year round. Horse-riding, rollerblading, swimming, boating, tennis, cycling, bowling and putting are just some of the formal activities catered for, while informal games of cricket, football, rugby and rounders regularly sprout up in the ‘Sports Field’ on the south side of the park. A number of famous London attractions are also housed within this central space. Hyde Park boasts Speaker’s Corner and the Serpentine Lake, Lido and Gallery, while Kensington Palace, the Italian Gardens, Peter Pan statue, Albert Memorial and Diana Memorial Playground characterise Kensington Gardens. A full complement of events including free guided walks, concerts, workshops and entertainments complete the picture.

C’est le plus connu des parcs londoniens. On y voit cavaliers et joggers qui font le tour de la Serpentine, un petit lac sinueux, tandis que des orchestres jouent sous le kiosque à musique . Le Dimanche ,on peut y observer l’excentricité britannique sous sa forme la plus pure : le Speaher’s Corner, au nord est du parc, accueille toute personne qui a quelque chose à dire et qui veut le dire plus fort que les autres. Il faut un bon niveau d’Anglais pour pleinement apprécier les débats, mais le spectacle est souvent réjouissant, et il est gratuit.

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The Statue of Liberty was a present from France to the United States

The Statue of Liberty in numbers

Total Height :  93m

Height of Statue : 46m

Height of Pedestal : 27m

Height of foundation : 20m

Length of Hand : 5m

Length of index finger : 2,5m

Weight : 204,545 kg

Length of nose : 1,5m

steps : 168

« The French people should give the American people a monument to independence and liberty »

« New york is where people get their first view of the New World. It is the door to America »

Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi , a 31-year-old sculptor from Alsace , agreed. That night, the idea of the Statue of Liberty was born. In 1870, Laboulaye told Bartholdi to visit the United States. When Bartholdi arrived in New York Harbor in 1871, he found the perfect home for the statue : Bedloe’s Island.

The sculptor took a small model of the statue, called « Liberty Enlightening » the World , with him. People loved his idea. But nobody gave him money or a site.

In 1874, Laboulaye and Bartholdi decided to begin the statue. But it was very expensive, so they decided that France would pay for the statue, and America would pay for the pedestal and foundation. A Franco-American committee was created to raise money. The money was slow in coming , so they decided to have a lottery.

Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel designed the statue’s skeleton. In August 1876 , the arm and torsh were finished and sent to the U.S. For 50 cents , visitors climbed into the torch. It was the first time people could climb inside part of a statue, and they were very enthusiastic.

Lady Liberty was finally finished in June 1884. But Laboulaye never saw his dream completed. He died in the winter of 1883.

A Statue for all of America

The statue was sent to America in 1885. Bartholdi assumed that the statue’s base was nearly finished. But he was wrong ! In fact , the Americans had done very little. The American press did not like the idea, because the pedestal cost as much as the statue. People outside of New York said : » Let New York pay for it ».

People say that the statue’s face was modeled on Bartholdi’s mother.

A dream is accomplished

The statue arrived on Bedloe’s Island in 214 crates on June 15, 1885. The foundation was constructed, using 24,000 tons of concrete. It took six months to assemble the statue. On October 25 , 1886 Bartholdi and his wife went to America. « My dream is accomplished » he said. When tha statue of Liberty was unveiled on Oct.28, 1886, people exploded with joy. President Cleveland said : « Liberty will not be neglected »

At that time , the statue of Liberty was New York’s tallest structure. Today, of course, that is not true. But Americans, and tourists, still love to admire her

« The statue is not a present from French millionaires. It is a present from all the people of France to all the people of America. »Joseph Pulitzer

« The statue is not just for New York, it is for all of America »

Avant d’entamer son long voyage vers les Etats Unis ; la célèbre statue fit d’abord un trajet en train afin de l’acheminer des ateliers de Paris, où elle fut construite, jusqu’à la gare de Rouen. Les 350 pièces de la statue étaient réparties dans 214 caisses transportées dans 70 wagons. C’est à son arrivée  à Rouen que le vaste puzzle de pièces de cuivre est transféré sur la frégate l’Isère, l’un des premiers navires français combinant la voile et la vapeur. Elle arrive à New York le 17 Juin 1885 et fut remise officiellement aux Etats Unis le 4 Juillet 1884 , jour de la fête nationale americaine.

Welcome English Pont propose deux cours de niveau en Anglais

Speaking English fluently means being able to express your thoughts, feelings and ideas. Your goal is to speak English in full sentences, so why not learn it in full sentences? You’ll find that English is more useful in your everyday life if you study whole phrases, rather than just vocabulary and verbs. Start by thinking about phrases that you use frequently in your native language, and then learn how to say them in English.

Audrey vient de prendre connaissance de son emploi du temps professionnel, voici donc ce qui va changer dans le déroulement des

cours pour l’exercice 2018-2019 :

Les deux cours de langue Anglaise auront lieu le Lundi.

Le premier s’adresse plus particulièrement aux débutants de manière générale. Il débutera le Lundi 10 Septembre 2018 de 17h30 à 19h00, toujours salle n°9 Place d’Armes « Maison des Associations », (ce nouveau cours a été programmé à la demande des Apprenants à la suite d’une assemblée générale de fin d’année) .

Ensuite , le deuxième cours prend le titre de niveau Intermédiaire selon la nomenclature Européenne et concerne les Apprenants possédant de bonne base de compréhension de la langue, il sera présenté le Lundi 10 Septembre de 19h00 à 20h30 salle n° 9 Place d’Armes « Maison des Associations »

Nous ouvrirons un cours pour Apprenants avancés (stade B2-C1) en fonction des inscriptions (minimum 14 élèves/classe) tout au long de l’année. En 2018 seulement quatre personnes suivaient ce cours, c’est la raison pour laquelle nous ne l’avons pas reconduit systématiquement, mais nous restons ouvert pour l’avenir, c’est vous qui décidez.

You don’t have to only learn English from textbooks and teachers – anyone who speaks English can help you practice. Imagine how you would feel if someone asked you, in your native language, how to pronounce something? Would you be angry? No! You’d probably be happy to help, just like most English-speakers are happy to help you. If you know any English-speakers, whether it’s a friend or co-worker, take advantage of the opportunity to practice and learn from them.


Why learn English

So, you already know why we learn English. Today, it isn’t about being trendy – speaking English is a must! I mean, everyone (and their Grandma) uses English. It is practically impossible to avoid it – at work, during our leisure time at home or on holiday. That being so, English is THE foreign language to learn.

  • It’s the Most Widely Spoken Language in the World


What’s more, English is the rest of the world’s “second language”. While Chinese Mandarin and Spanish are the mother tongues of more people overall, most people in the world choose to learn some English after their native language. In fact, one in five people on the planet speak or understand at least a little bit of English.

This makes English one of the most useful languages you can learn. After all, you can’t learn all 6,500 languages in the world, but at least you will be able to communicate with people from all different countries using English.

Language is the essential tool needed by people to obtain their desired needs and to be acquainted with their and other people’s past and contemporary experience, while living in a society.

Considering the importance of being bilingual or trilingual in our society, we will realize the role played by being so in the ideal development of our human capital. Therefore, it is important to study other languages and use them effectively. Studying and speaking English is the first need of today’s literacy. English is the one and only global language. It had spread all over the world, and we can hardly find a country, which does not use it, regardless of its civilization rank.